Saturday, February 8, 2020

Candidate Cancer Meiosis Genes Literature review

Candidate Cancer Meiosis Genes - Literature review Example Some X-chromosome and non-X-chromosome CTAs expressed in normal cells apart from testis and in cancerous cells Literature Review 1. Introduction Carcinogenesis is a complex and multistage process. Cancer is difficult to treat and it is important to detect it early so that therapeutic and surgical strategies can be developed to treat cancer. However, it often happens that by the time the symptoms of cancer are detected in a person, the disease is already at a late stage and it becomes difficult to treat the person at that time. Also, the cancers do not only vary between tissue types but also between patients. Moreover, the cells in a tumor are a complex and diverse mix of cells that have different characteristics. Hence, identifying, detecting and treating cancer becomes difficult because of the heterogeneous nature of the disease and its symptoms. At this juncture what is needed is that such a technology should be developed through which cancer cells can be easily detected or demarke d with markers that are specific to cancer cells. This will help filter cancerous from noncancerous cells because of which it will become easier to detect cancer from a heterogeneous mix of cells. At the moment, high-quality biomarkers or molecular targets that are specific to cancer cells are lacking. The search for such molecules is thus under high significance in the scientific community. A few molecules or antigenic biomarkers have already been identified. One such group of antigens that are gene-encoded are cancer testis antigens (CTAs). CTAs under normal circumstances are present in the testes only because their genes are expressed in the testes. These genes are not expressed elsewhere. Research has shown that some of these genes that are only expressed in the testes are also expressed in other somatic cells when they become cancerous tumor cells. The cells in the testes often escape the cells of immune system, because of which they are protected from antibodies that are direc ted towards cancer-testis antigens. Because of this reason, it is a good option to use immunological therapies for diagnosing CTAs in cancerous somatic cells as the same antigens in the normal cells of the testes will remain unaffected. Therefore, it can be said that CTAs are good targets for both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, and also immunological-based therapies like adoptive therapeutics. The number of CTA genes that can be used for diagnosis is less because many of these genes are also expressed in a few normal somatic cells. Some candidate CTA genes are generally turned on during the meiotic programme. These are called meiCT or CM genes. As the present research is based on these genes, this literature review will focus on these genes which are CM genes. In the review, the first discussion is on cancer. It is an introduction to cancer, describing the causes and stages of cancer and then moving on to hallmarks of cancer.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Vulnerable Population Essay Example for Free

Vulnerable Population Essay Children are one population group of the society that is vulnerable. The U. S. A agencies for Development, most vulnerable children are those who get inadequate support from adults due to abandonment, chronic illness i. e. those who have AIDS or those that are suspected to have it. Other causes of vulnerability emanate from the destruction of social systems that used to protect children in the community. Such destruction comes around due to conflicts, violence, and living outside family care. These bad conditions expose children to serious survival risk. The UNAIDS projects that by 2010 there will be 20-25 million AIDS orphans. Orphans are confronted by a large number of challenges. They don’t easily have access to funds for food, clothing, basic healthcare, or school fees. The desperation that comes out of this scenario makes the children more vulnerable to exploitation and abuse that ends up making them contract the disease. According to the 2006 act: safeguarding vulnerable groups, chapter 47. subsection 21; controlled activity relating to children; schedule 3 parts 1 sub paragraph 4 in reference to offence committed against children it states culpable conduct is that which puts or is likely to put the child in danger, conduct involving material on sex, graphical material conduct. In part 2 of the same subsection a person endangers a child in cases where; they harm the child, put the child into risk, attempts to harm or incites someone else to harm the child. ( Act, 2006) According demographics of there are groups in the category of children that are more vulnerable than others. Orphans are the most vulnerable section among the vulnerable children. Others are the children who come from poor families, children from minority ethnicities, or children with disabilities among others. In a study done on Hester-sway area of local community, in a population of 11,730 it was identified that high risk group areas for children constitute twenty percent of the population. Speakers addressing the congress on the world aids day cited orphaned children and children suffering from the deadly AIDS disease as the most vulnerable group. Children who lack parental care consequently lack a source of primary care. Under this category we have orphans, refugees, detainees, abducted children, children under care of caregivers, and children in prolonged stay at the hospital, or detained seekers of asylum who happen to be children. (Cox, The child is first exposed to risk when there occurs a separation of the family unit. Placement of children to institutions such as care institutions that may follow is not good for the well being of the child. It is known that children who lack protection and guidance of their parents or guardians are more predisposed to becoming victims of violence, discrimination, trafficking, exploitation etc. Children who get orphaned in conflict situations such as war face malnutrition, physical and psychological trauma, illness, and suffer faulty development emotionally. Unprotected girls run the risk of being sexually abused, while boys in similar situation are prone to forced participation in armed conflict and violence The numbers of children facing orphanage situations are many across states. Central and eastern Europe has 1. 5 million children living in public care. In Russia, despite a fall in birth rates over the last ten years, numbers of children left without parental care continue to soar. Worldwide armed conflict separated or orphaned a million children. Of all refugees five percent are unaccompanied children, and finally the estimated number of total orphans in the in the world is 143 million. (Unicef, 2008) Putting the children into institutions is often a move that is meant to keep them out of the society. This is caused by certain biases members of the society harbor for the vulnerable and disadvantaged groups such as orphans, children suffering from AIDS, and children with disabilities among the others. Institutionalized, in this sense, amounts to deprivation of the right of the persons to freely associate with other members of the society. The conditions in the institutions of essentially violate the children’s. In the institutions there is rampant discrimination, neglect, denial of the right to education and participation among other abuses. Being victims of blatant discrimination, vulnerable children under five years of age carry the bulk of disease and mortality rates for the world’s population. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) this is caused by lack of health support services which leaves the children in risk of contracting infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS. In Eastern Europe the stigma surrounds HIV causes many cases of abandonment of children by their HIV positive mothers. ( Unicef, 2004) The children end up neglected, either on the streets or in an institution. And following the sense of lack of support from the society the children end up being dehumanized, others become social misfits due to substance abuse and their condition generally worsens. According to research it has been established that the risk of orphan hood or suffering from the dreaded HIV is not reserves of a few but all people can suffer from it. This is due to the escalation of violence and the unpredictability of contracting aids. Similar risks exist in the categories of disability, and poverty, that threatens everyone in the modern times. In a new vision then, vulnerable children should be seen as children who face increased risk of negative outcome compared to average children in the society. If the society doesn’t change the stereotyping it has condoned on the vulnerable groups the same may soon or later affect them the same way. Appropriate interventions that can help the orphaned and vulnerable children should be structured alongside the specific needs of the children. This should be done with the children’s circumstances, gender age etc. There should be improvement of nutritional status for the children from poor backgrounds, and proper integration that is tailored to restore the mental health of the children. In any case the vulnerable children are only disadvantaged by discrimination the society has for them. Their situations are not a cause for failure and if they are given fair chances in the society they can perform even better out of sheer resilience. (Molenaar, 2002) Doctors Of the World (DOW) work among vulnerable groups. In an analysis of their target groups they concluded that children are the most vulnerable group. For the organization violation of the Childs healthy development amounts to violation of their rights. The society emphasizes and works towards protection of basic rights of children i. e. those orphaned, disabled, institutionalized, and those on the street. With a perspective like that of the DOW we see that the vulnerability risks of the child are enormous, but can be surmounted. Through an approach such as theirs, that are principally done with the cooperation of the governments and civil societies, people can build capacities for and develop children welfare, and substantially reduce the risks that make children vulnerable all over the world. Juvenile crime has sent many young people to juvenile detention in America today. Most of the young detainees are held on nonviolent cases such as mental health, failed families. Instead of addressing the young persons need for treatment, they are locked up that can only keep them, not help them positively. (Liss, 2005) References Cox, T. (2000), Combating Educational Disadvantage: Meeting the Needs of Vulnerable Children, Routledge. Liss, S (2005) No Place for Children: Voices from Juvenile Detention University of Texas Press. Molenaar M.(2002) Assessing and Promoting Resilience in Vulnerable Children: A Handbook on Social Work and Student Counseling, Kingsley Publishers Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse, Unite for Children press centre http://www. unicef. org retrieved November 20, 2008 Children on the Brink (2004). A Joint Report of New Orphan Estimates and a Framework for Action. UNICEF/UNAIDS/USAID http://www. cheltenhampartnership. org. uk/libraries/documents/neighbourhood%20policing/hestersway profile . pdf. Retrieved; November 20, 2008.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The time machine :: essays research papers fc

The story begins in the house of the Time Traveler. He says to a group of people it is possible to travel through time. The group of people doesn't believe him, so he shows them a working model of the Machine. He makes it disappear into the future. Next week the same group of people return. They can't find the Time Traveler. After a while he comes, and says he has been traveling through time. He tells his story. At first the time moves a bit faster than normal. He can see someone entering the laboratory very quick. Then the time starts moving more quickly. The laboratory disappeared. When he stopped the machine, he was in a sort of garden in a new world. 802701 Description of the New World. The human race was split in to parts, the Eloi and the Morlocks. Eloi saw him, and they found him interesting. He is taken to a building and can eat. When they loose interest he discovers his Time Machine is gone. He thinks it is put in a white Sphinx. Then he rescues a little female Eloi, Weena. She appreciates it and follows him everywhere. He discovers how the world works. He tries to find his Time Machine. At a time he is in the forest with Weena. They are surrounded by Morlocks, and it's getting late. He has built a campfire. He escapes because the forest is burning, but he lost Weena. He goes to the white Sphinx and starts destroying it. He can enter it and he sees the time machine. When he approaches it he discovers it is a trick to get hem there. Quickly he jumps in the time machine and disappears. He stops 30 million years later. The earth has completely changed and all intelligent creatures have disappeared. Then he returns to our time. The Time Traveler tells to the group of people they may believe it if they want it. He isn't sure of it himself anymore. The next day someone from the group returns. The time Traveler tells him to wait. When he wants to tell to the Time Traveler he has to go, the Time Traveler and his Machine have gone.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Disadvantages to Patriot Act

Disadvantages to the Patriot act (USAPA); There are six flaws to the act that was passed into law on October 26th, 2001: It takes away civil rights, by doing so it destroys the definition of what it means to be an American Citizen [ (talkradio101, 2010) ]. The feeling is that by destroying our way of life is the best way to reward or give victory to the terrorist [ (topix, 2012) ]. Secondly, Constitutional protections are violated, the U. S. Constitution is the most lasting, well-written document, and this is why our nation has become the most successful nation [ (talkradio101, 2010) ].People from all over the world have migrated here for the freedom of religious practice, now you can be tracked to your place of worship which violates the 1st Amendment violation), you can be held without trial, without representation or facing the witnesses against them which are violations of the 6th and 7th Amendments. Third is potential for abuse by current administration and future administration s, this â€Å"War on Terror† potentially has no end; there will not be a cease fire or peace treaty signed to officially end the war like in nation-vs. nation wars [ (talkradio101, 2010) ]. This means that the â€Å"time of danger† will never end and that the government will continue to violate our rights [ (NPR, 2012) ]. Fourthly is the act increases the possibility for racial profiling or other means of discrimination and harassment, we have many law-abiding loyal Americans who are of Arab decent, have Muslim Beliefs and work in high profile careers, such as nuclear scientist and biowepons experts [ (NPR, 2012) ].We have come a long way in our many civil rights abuses of the past and something like this could cause a detrimental slip backwards for our nations [ (talkradio101, 2010) ]. Fifth flaw is the use of gathered information by government for non-terror/political purposes, this information could be used for blackmail, embarrassment of rivals to further a career or gain the upper hand in a political race. This information could be used to bring down anyone who would chose to speak out against the country or even someone in political power.Lastly all of the first flaws could lead to the abuse of Muslims and other groups causing a shift in viable sources of information to locate terrorist and possibly creating new terrorist [ (topix, 2012) ] [ (NPR, 2012) ]. Works Cited NPR. (2012, October 29). NPR. org. Retrieved from www. npr. org: www. npr. org/news/specials/patriotact/patriotactprovisions. html talkradio101. (2010, May 18). Retrieved from www. talkradio101. com: http://www. talkradio101. com topix. (2012, October 29). www. topix. com. Retrieved from Topix. com: www. topix. com/forum/us/patriot-act/TUPOA5NOIQKIFN8FE/p3

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Role Of A Human Resources Department Essay - 930 Words

Role and Function of a Human Resources Department In today’s work environment, organizations are continually seeking an advantage over the competition. One resource to assist with this ambition is to utilize the human resources (HR) department as a strategic partner in the micro and macro planning of the organization. This paper will define the role and function while distinguishing the duties and responsibilities of an effective HR department. Background Ellard Williams, Incorporated (EWI) is a manufacturing firm employing nearly 11,300 workers (Colorado State University - Global Campus, n.d.). At this time, the firm is experiencing deficiencies in the HR department, which is leading to ineffective processes and a drop in profits throughout the organization. A strategic analysis revealed a slump in growth, high turnover rate, underpaid staff, and a loss in profits if all activities remain the same (n.d.). As a result of the unsuccessful HR department, employee motivation, performance, and productivity are suffering that is causing production delays and high defect rates (n.d.). Role and Function The HR professional’s function is more than shuffling through applications, inputting data, and providing reports. â€Å"Among HR roles, many authors argue that the â€Å"strategic role† is a pivotal one for HR professionals in today’s organization† (Mitchell et al, 2013, p. 900). What this means for HR professionals is they should participate in developmental and organizationalShow MoreRelatedRole Of A Human Resource Department984 Words   |  4 PagesRole and Function of a Human Resource Department Human resources (HR) are so much more than the traditional view of an administrative function within the organization. If properly developed and initiated HR can become a strong, strategic business partner. 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It is the process of forecasting the supply and demand for humanRead MoreThe Role Of Human Resources Department At The Management Training Process1556 Words   |  7 Pagesunderstand the role of the Human Resources department in the management training process, there must first be an understanding of the origin and true intention of the implementation of such department. Many business professionals may be under the impression that Human Resources is a modern institution created around the industrial era made famous by the teaching and research of Dave Ulrich. To a certain extent this would be a correct assumption. There are multiple perceptions of the modern Human ResourcesRead MoreThe Role Of Traditional And Antiquated Function Of Any Human Resources Department1403 Words   |  6 Pagesfunction of any human resources department was to employ, terminate and event plan for companies. 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Examples of core qualities of human res ources management areRead MoreFunctional Areas of Business1020 Words   |  5 Pagesbusiness are management, law, human resources management, leadership, accounting, finance, economics, research and statistics, operations management, marketing, and strategic planning. Although, all of the functional areas are essential to the success of a organization, two areas stand out as key to getting the business started and keeping it profitable, and they are human resources management and the accounting area (University of Phoenix, 2013). The Human Resources Management (HRM) area of businessRead MoreThe Role of Human Resource in Healthcare1011 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Human resource department is significant in the health care industry. This is because it necessitates the delivery of quality health care from a consumer perspective, physicians, regulators, employees and payers. It is vital that human resources department gives room for working closely with all parties in the organization. This ensures that the health institution becomes successful. The department works closely with all employees to assist a person to understand their responsibilities

Friday, December 20, 2019

Percy Jackson And The Olympians The Lightning Thief

Ernest Hemingway once said, â€Å"There is no friend as loyal as a book† (â€Å"Quotes†). Since the end of the third grade year, I have had a roaring passion for storytelling in all forms; radio, theater, and books. Journeying with the characters, I grew to thrive on their riveting adventures. I solved mysteries with Nancy Drew, attended Hogwarts with Harry Potter, and faced dragons with Bilbo Baggins. Of all of these adventures, I hold those of Percy Jackson the closest to my heart because of the deep rooted friendships I found through it. Published in 2005, Percy Jackson and the Olympians: the Lightning Thief was written by Rick Riordan and starts off the adventures of a twelve year old boy named, Percy Jackson. Percy is a troubled†¦show more content†¦Despite our competition, we found that we both had a deep love for the Percy Jackson series. Just as Percy made friends at Camp Half-Blood, I made a friend. That winter, we attended Spanish classes to gether. We swapped theories and ideas over the books. As our love for the books grew, our friendship grew. Soon, Jacob and I were best friends. In the halls, I’d shout out his nickname, Sushie, based off of Percy’s nickname in the series, and in class he’d pass me spoilers. In a quick year, we went from bitter rivals to best friends. Conflict is the key to all narratives, and like how Percy faced monsters, our friendship faced its own conflict. In the middle of our seventh grade year, Jacob moved to New Zealand, where his mother is from. This forced a shift in the dynamic of our relationship. Suddenly, we didn’t see each other everyday in school. However, our love for Percy Jackson kept us together- with the help of social media. Our exchanging of ideas became daily Facebook messages that expanded from the books we were reading to science, art, and culture. As the stories thrived, so did our friendship. Then, in the late autumn of 2014, the last Percy Jackson book, Heroes of Olympus: Blood of Olympus, came out. My heart clenched. Would reading the last book mean the end of our friendship? The question waged war on me, so I avoided reading it, until one day a package arrived. Wrapped in white cardboard, the Amazon package stared up at me with itsShow MoreRelatedPercy Jackson And The Olympians : The Lightning Thief1047 Words   |  5 Pages Have you ever wondered if gods were real? In â€Å"Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lightning Thief† they are. There is a prophecy made at Camp Half-Blood, a place where half-bloods (people who have a mortal parent and a parent who is a god) live to stay safe from monsters that want to kill them. The prophecy is said by the Oracle, a magical being that inhibits a mummy’s body and spouts prophecies from time to time, telling what will happen during quests that half-bloods take. It stays in the atticRead More Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lightning Thief Es say3103 Words   |  13 PagesMy original thought when comparing Percy Jackson and the Olympians: the Lightning Thief the movie and Classical mythology was that there would be many more references to the myth of Perceus than any other myth throughout the movie in its entirety. That’s where I was wrong. After watching the movie again and researching the different hero myths my opinion has changed. My new thoughts are that the movie is not influenced by the myth of Perceus any more than other hero myths. The movie ties togetherRead MoreAnalysis Of Percy Jackson And Olympians : The Lightning Thief1182 Words   |  5 PagesThe book â€Å"Percy Jackson Olympians: The Lightning Thief† by Rick Riordan is the first book in his fiction Greek god and goddess series. This book was written from the main character, Percy Jackson’s point of view just after sixth grade. As the story progresses its settings become more elaborate. The book’s major settings are Percyà ¢â‚¬â„¢s school, camp Half Blood, Greek God Hades’s Underworld, a beach in Santa Monica, and the top of the Empire State building which is secretly Mount. Olympus. It is writtenRead MoreDisney s Hercules And Percy Jackson And The Olympians : The Lightning Thief853 Words   |  4 PagesMovie directors change the way they depict characters based on things like genre, intended audience, accuracy of the myth, and even personal preference. The directors producing Disney’s Hercules and Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lightning Thief had similar intended audiences but very different views on the feel of the movie and how the gods should be perceived. With Zeus being the king of the gods we can predict a lot about the movie just by the depiction of Zeus. Both movies introduce himRead MoreThe Lightning Thief And Danaus, Perseus, And The Gorgons1509 Words   |  7 PagesThe two pieces of storytelling, Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lightning Thief and â€Å"Danaus, Perseus, and the Gorgons† are similar and different in multiple ways. The movie, Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lightning Thief, is a modernized piece of the story, â€Å"Danaà ¼s, Perseus, and the Gorgon†, because the events of starting off in different settings, challenging points in their journey, and returning to different places to be praised, the perfect hero portraying, and a good-vs-evil themeRead MoreThe Lightning Thief1024 Words   |  5 PagesThe Lightning Thief Main article: The Lightning Thief The Lightning Thief is the first book in the series. It was released on June 28, 2005. Percy Jackson is a 12-year-old with ADHD and dyslexia. Percy goes to a middle school called Yancy Academy, which is a school for troubled kids. During a field trip, Percy is attacked by Alecto, a mythological creature known as a Fury, who was disguised as his pre-algebra teacher Mrs. Dodds. Percy kills Mrs. Dodds with a pen sword that his Latin teacherRead MorePercy Jackson And The Lightning Thief Essay1140 Words   |  5 PagesPercy Jackson The Lightning Thief is a movie based off of the book series, Percy Jackson The Olympians, written by Rick Riordan. Rick Riordan is an American author who is most famous for writing the Percy Jackson The Olympians series, about a twelve year old boy who discovers that he is a son of Poseidon. His books have been translated into forty-two languages and sold more than thirty million copies in the United States. This movie is based on Greek mythology. The main character, Percy JacksonRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between Percy Jackson And Gilgamesh1518 Words   |  7 PagesBoth Percy Jackson and the Olympians, Book 1: The Lightning Thief and the Epic of Gilgamesh have heroes as their protagonists. Those protagonists, Percy Jackson and Gilgamesh, have similarities and differences, which can be used to see how humanity’s view of the concept of a hero has changed over the last three-thousand and two-hundred years. The differences in their qualifications for heroic qualities, both traditional and modern, highlights how humanity’s viewpoint of what it means to be a heroRead MoreAnalysis of Percy Jackson and the Olympians2772 Words   |  12 PagesThe fact that Percy Jackson has friends is incredible. It’s an unshakable fact that any friend of his within a ten mile radius will be in a life or death situation with him by dinner, and they aren’t always so lucky as him. But that’s getting ahead of ourselves. Over the course of the five-part contemporary young adult series Percy Jackson The Olympians, titular character Percy Jackson must embrace his Greek God parentage and save Olympus with the help of his fellow demigods. The aim of this paperRead MoreMythology Film Review (Percy Jackson)1014 Words   |  5 PagesAlex Beecher ENG 215 5/31/12 Film Review Perseus Abound For this film review, I watched the film Percy Jackson and the Olympians: The Lightning Thief. It tells the story of Percy, son of Poseidon, and his quest to discover both who he is and who stole the mighty lightning bolt of Zeus. The film is aimed at families, and generally shows an accurate representation of the Greek myths. There are a few key differences though, which are mostly used to present the Greek Gods in a better, more likable